Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Psychology Opinion Paper Essay

There are a total of six approaches to psychology covered in chapter one, these six approaches include: neurobiological, behavioral, humanistic, psychoanalytic, cognitive and socio-cultural approaches. Of these six approaches I’ve found the neurobiological and socio-cultural approaches to be the most persuasive and believable for my personal views. The Neurobiological approach in psychology is defined as viewing behavior as the result of nervous system functions and biology. I believe strongest in the Neurobiological approach because the obvious physical changes and processes your body creates under specific conditions are regularly seen, in times of relaxation, fear or anything in between. In everyday life my own behavior is commonly the result of Neurobiological behavior. I believe that our internal functions have almost complete control over our actions and decisions. An example of a Neurobiological action in behavior can be seen when I was recently I was calmly resting on my bed and suddenly I saw a centipede crawling across my stomach; instinctively my body and mind reacted by get frightened; creating a racing heart beat and my nervous system went into its flight instinct which caused me to jump away from the predator and end up with a bite on the side of my waist. Another example of Neurobiological behavior becomes evident in someone who commonly abuses drugs such as Ecstasy (MDMA), which is known to cause changes to the brain’s chemistry, specifically the serotonin levels. The depletion of serotonin level in the brain often seen with common Ecstasy use often can be seen as a cause of depression in some people. That is not to say that other factors do not contribute to depression but this is just one example. This just simply proves that it is not only the outside world that affects our behaviors. I firmly believe that many of our choices in life are affected extensively by our biological composition. The next approach in psychology that I particularly agreed with was the sociocultural approach. This approach by definition means that behavior is viewed as strongly influenced by rules and expectations of specific social  groups or cultures. I believe that this issue is also very dominant in affecting the way we behave. Living in Hawaii, which happens to be a very culturally diverse state allows be to see many different lifestyles and behaviors all combined into one area. The school that I attend is extremely multi-cultural students are Tongan, Hawaiian, Japanese, Caucasian, Filipino, Spanish and so on. With such a vast array of cultures all living in one area one can easily notice the different views, standards, languages, goals, and activities that are influenced by one’s ethnic and cultural background. Also falling under the sociocultural approach is how people act and based primarily on the social behavior of their peers or the society in which they live. It is especially common for adolescents to follow something that they ordinarily would not do simply because it is â€Å"cool† and it appears â€Å"everyone is doing it.† In my opinion, I think that most drug use and other inappropriate behavior stems from this theory that people make decisions based on their outside influences.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Marketing Plan for Toyota Prius Essay

1. Executive Summary Toyota Motors is preparing to launch the new Toyota Prius Hybrid. The Prius will be using the Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) with features combining highly efficient petrol engine and an electric motor. The electric vehicle (EV) allows the Prius to run purely for low noise and zero fuel consumption (Toyota Company, 2012). Due to the ever increasing presence of green revolution, Toyota Motors wants to take advantage of the potential increase in demand for hybrid vehicles (Boschert, 2007). Having been voted the World’s No 1 Hybrid in 2010 (Toyota, 2013), Toyota Motors have made an executive decision to continue producing the Prius, giving the world its first mass-produced hybrid car. As a result, even before launching this new product it is important for Toyota Motors to prepare strategic marketing place so that the Toyota Prius can impact the marketplace. 2. Current Marketing Situation 1. Product Let us take a look at the Prius with respect to its exterior, interior, performance, safety and price (Toyota Company, 2013). Exterior: The Prius has a distinct design shaped by using a comprehensive approach to aerodynamic theory and performance, contributing to its powerful performance and outstanding fuel efficiency. Interior: The interior of the Prius expresses the spirit of innovation which is warm and inviting. The Prius is fully equipped with soft lines which flow around the occupants as passengers and drivers alike relax comfortably. Performance: The Prius is a combination of highly efficient engine with a fully equipped electric motor. The HSD provides a smooth, responsive performance which includes low fuel consumption and low exhaust emission. Safety: The Prius ensures peace of mind. This means that it is fully equipped with active and passive safety measures that integrate the use of advanced technologies; helping to ensure the highest level of safety. Price: The Prius is currently priced at RM 139,915 with insurance for consumers in Peninsular Malaysia. As technology for the Prius increase, Toyota will surely lower its market price so as to make it more affordable for consumers. 2. Market data According to a survey done by J. D. Power published in 2012, almost 23% of respondents have indicated that the next car they would buy or lease would most likely be a hybrid car such as the Prius (Tuttle, 2013). Toyota being the top manufacturing hybrid car company has certainly managed to push beyond its original niche status and become a best seller across the globe. 3. Competition The Prius continues to face intense competition from other automakers. One of Toyota’s main competitors is Ford. Ford has recently launched the C-Max. The C-Max has been impressive recording higher sales than the Prius V (Turtle, 2013). In January 2013, Bloomberg reports that Ford hybrid sales have increased five-fold. Ford has sold 6000 hybrids in January 2013 as compared to only 1200 in January 2012 (Trudell, 2013). Erich Merkle, Ford’s sales analyst has even reported that â€Å"we are looking toward 2013 as being a record sales year for our hybrid vehicles.† Also, Ford’s market share has increased from 7% in 2012 to 16% in 2013. 4. Macro-Environment We will be using the PESTLE analysis as a tool to clearly identify and analyze the key drivers of change in the business environment (Johnson, Scholes and Whittington, 2008. As stated by Orfano, this PESTLE tool allows the assessing of the current environment and potential changes (Orfano, 2011). We shall look at these 6 factors based on the research done by Sin and co (Sin, 2012). Political Factors: The Prius has a positive political impact because by manufacturing these hybrid cars, a country reduces the dependence on petrol. This is true for countries that do not produce oil. Economic Factors: Consumers will begin to select the Prius because of the fuel savings over time benefits. Also, the cost of insurance and road tax for the Prius is relatively lower that a normal gasoline car. Social Factors: Since change in the climate is a serious issue, Toyota should produce a vehicle which will not bring pollution to the environment. Although the Prius is significantly higher in value than conventional cars, with technology increasing in the near future it is very likely that the price of the Prius will decline accordingly as the Prius’ technology become more familiar. Technological Factors: Hachman suggests the technology used in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles is the idea of using the batter powered car. The recharging time is one and a half hours for 240V AC or three hours for 120V AC. The plug-in will switch to hybrid mode, providing an estimated 49 miles per gallon (Hachman, 2011). In order to increase mileage, the Prius is built from a body of lightweight materials such as carbon fiber, aluminum, magnesium and titanium. Legal Factors: According to the United States department of energy lead programs office (LPO), it encourages advance clean energy technologies. This is to contribute meaningfully to the objectives of including job creation, reducing dependency on foreign oil, improving environmental legacy and enhancing American competitiveness in the global economy of the 21st century (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005). Environmental Factors: The Prius unlike other cars does not produce gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbon and lead which can cause many health problems. Not only does the Prius, provide a public benefit but at the same times it does not compromise on its safety, quality and functionality. 3. SWOT Analysis It is importance to identify Toyota’s organizational strengths and weakness together with its opportunities and threats. The ultimate goal is to identify Toyota’s core competencies – things that Toyota has or does relatively well as compared with competitors (Schermerhorn, 2011). |Strengths |Weaknesses | |Best fuel efficiency of any midsize car |Fuel economy varies and optimization requires careful driving | |Spacious interior |Premium price compared to similar non-hybrid cars | |Good performance compared to non-hybrid vehicles |Other cars are available in the same price range with significantly | |Comfortable |higher performance | |Quiet at all speeds |Requires more energy to build than comparable non-hybrid cars | |Smoother transmission than most other cars | | |Appeal of latest technology | | |Minimal impact on environment | | |Excellent scoring on crash test | | |Opportunities |Threats | |It is likely that petroleum will cost more in the future as supplies|High mileage clean diesel based cars are becoming more available and| |diminish which may increase demand |will grab market share | |Awareness of environmental concerns is growing |Other hybrids such as the Ford C-Max will soon enter the market | |Sales are likely to spread new markets in developing cou ntries over |Toyota’s recent negative press and widespread recalls are likely to | |time |scare some potential buyers. | (Halbright, 2010) 4. Objectives Increase awareness of Toyota Prius by 50% in the next 3 years targeting new markets in developing countries. Increase total sales of Toyota Prius by 40% by the end of 2013 (Refer to Appendix: Note 1) Invest substantially in positioning a distinctive Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) projecting low noise and zero fuel consumption. Start positioning Toyota Prius as an environmental friendly family car. 5. Marketing Strategy Creative Strategy: The Toyota Prius offers features that no other car offers. This in itself is its unique selling point and should be emphasized in market promotions. As a start to achieve the increase in awareness, promotion should concentrate on the education aspect. Communication Mix: As for communicating the Prius, two factors should be considered a) the type of product (high involvement) and the stage in the product life cycle (introduction). With regards to high involvement, personal selling is important because it provides more conviction of purchase. Personal selling will be carried out by the local car dealers who need to have sufficient knowledge on the Prius. Personal selling will also include targeting corporate companies or fleet buying segment. As for the stage in the product life cycle, sales promotion is most effective trigger for a purchase. Sales promotions are useful at the beginning of the product life cycle to increase acceptance or provoke a test drive. Media Strategy: The internet plays an important role. A direct mail will be sent to potential buyers and enable buyers to purchase the Prius online which would include a downloadable e-brochure. All advertisements will bear the Prius web address to make it easy for buyers to find it. Besides that, print adverts will be placed in quality newspapers especially those newspapers with weekend car editions such as The Star, New Straits Times, The Sun etc. Also, since the television is a good medium to target a wider audience it should be a priority. The TV stations would include TV3, NTV7 etc. Not forgetting outdoor billboards positioned at specific junctions. This could be complemented with a TV and print advertising where it is visible for potential buyers to see. Pre-Launch: This is crucial to get potential buyers excited about the new and upcoming Prius. Focusing on the pre-launch could potential determine how well the Prius sells. Consequently, an aura of excitement should be built from social media, direct mail, advertising, television adverts etc. This would also create awareness for the product that has a long purchase cycle and a long decision time. 6. Action Programs Subsequently the action program will be over a span of 3 years. So as to align our action program with our objectives, our marketing strategies will directly plan to achieve the objectives in which we set out. (The breakdown of the action program is attached in the Appendix: Note 2-4) 7. Projected Profit and Loss Statements The Projected Profit and Loss Statement would project a gross profit of RM 172,787.50. This comes from a projected unit sale of 2,500 units. (The breakdown of the Projected Profit and Loss Statement is attached in the Appendix: Note 5) 8. Controls So as to maximize the return on the marketing plan, there needs to be controls in place to monitors the plans progress (Anderson, 2013). Customer Feedback: To monitor the marketing plan, Toyota needs to monitor customer feedback through polls and surveys. Toyota can reach our buyers indirectly through hosting online polls on the Internet. Consequently, surveys can be done with marketing groups or via individual interviews by phone or in person. Target Market Sales: The Toyota Prius sales can be measured by the units sold. This is also done through market survey or at the point of sale. For example, if the target market is male ages 40 to 50, then market sales reports would monitor sales made to that group. On the other hand, if sales are down, then further market research would need to identify sales made to that group. Budgeting: This would include printing expense, travel expenses for trade shows, cost of market research studies and internal personnel costs. These costs would need to be closely monitored to minimize spending and maximize profitability. Market Share: Toyota would need to control market share which is the percentage of consumer sales dominated by the Prius. According to Turtle, the Toyota Prius market share decrease from 68% in 2012 to 60% in 2013 (Turtle, 2013). Subsequently, Toyota would need to increase market share and continue to place the Prius’ stamp in the marketplace.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Fast Food and Economy Essay

Present essay addresses the negative issues of fast food in modern society through the prism of the comprehensive analysis of its affects on health, culture, ethics and economy. There is no denying the importance of the fact that the issue of the fast food became relevant as a result of the modern globalization processes, which influenced the spread of the ‘American’ style of nutrition through the mechanism of its commercialization.   The evolution of fast food, as Jakle suggests, dates back to the post-industrial era of Western society including rapid development of automobile roots and road restaurants (Jakle, 21-26). Such components of fast food as hot dogs, hamburgers etc. were traditionally the elements of national patterns of nutrition, however, due to economic and cultural globalization, mentioned products reached new markets and peoples and proclaimed themselves as generally accepted patterns of food consumption. Such transnational corporations as McDonalds represent the paramount of the latter processes, because they control not only national markets, but international markets of food consumption in general. Negative effects of fast food were widely addressed in journalist and scholarly research, however, comprehensive framework of its analysis as cultural and economic phenomena is not still created. Based on these reservations, present essay defends the following thesis: Fast food is characterized by the negative effects on several spheres of human life. First of all, consuming fast food results in poor health consequences and including stomach deceases, diabetes etc. Secondly, fast food results in the degradation of national cuisines and cultural patterns of consumption, based on the perception of consumption as a spiritual ritual, characterized by emotional and aesthetic satisfaction. Finally, the third sub-thesis of the present essay refers to negative economic consequences of fast food, because it results in the low priorities of national food industries due to monopolization of this market by such American giants as McDonalds. Health Implications Negative health implications of fast food are the most obvious and are generally the object of the harsh critique. Fast food contains large quantity of calories and fats, which results in the deterioration of biological metabolism and concentration of sugar in the human blood and consequently abnormal functioning of various organs.   As Adams suggests, fast food consumption is one the main causes of the obesity epidemics in many countries, including the most widespread implication for the abdominal fat (Adams, 155). The research on fast food implication on health also revealed that it develops signs of the insulin resistance, which may be described as the early indicator of such decease as diabetes (Obesity in America, 2008). As Schlosser, the author of Fast Food Nation suggest in this respect, ‘it seems wherever America’s fast food chains go, waistlines inevitably start expanding’ (Schlosser, 242). The problem of obesity as result of fast food consumption is evident in many Western and nowadays non-Western countries, where the fast food industry is the most developed. The problem is amplified by the fact that obesity is not officially acknowledged as the health problem or epidemics. Only health consequences of obesity on heart, lungs and other crucial organs are addressed, however the main problem is not resolved, because such approach deals with the secondary issues, but not the causes. The diet and healthy food consumption, however, becomes very difficult for the majority of ordinary people fast food market offers cheaper products. To sum it up, health implications of fast food are widely acknowledged which certifies to the relevance of the first sub-thesis. Cultural and Ethical Implications of Fast Food Negative cultural and ethical implications of fast food are connected with the mode of its production and consumption. Fast food represents an industrial pattern of production, which focuses on profit and quantity, rather than quality. It is standardized and utilizes products, which are not always biologically healthy. Such approach results in degradation of national cuisines, which traditionally focused on home-made products, which are to be properly served and properly eaten. This tradition is still present in restaurants; however the majority of people still are forced to consume fast food due to intense advertising and relative cheapness. Culture of fast food is something that is characterized by haste, rationalization, lack of spirituality and aesthetic beauty. Unlike prepared meals, fast food has nothing to do with creativity and professionalism and hence it lacks cultural meaning. Negative ethical implications of fast food production may be observed in mass slaughterhouses, where meat and other products are prepared. Schlosser describes the atmosphere, which reigns there in such a way, â€Å"burning hair and blood, that greasy smell, and the odor of rotten eggs.† (Schlosser, 68). Fast Food and Economy Fast food is inextricably connected with poverty, because it parasitizes on the majority of people, who have no financial possibility to consume healthy food. The latter is closely linked with the absence of adequate health education. The globalization of fast food market also results in the monopolization of the food market in the developing countries. McDonald’s hamburgers are currently the most famous type of food and are considered by many as tasty and trendy. National cuisines are still popular; however, the trend spreads in the direction of their defeat by fast food market. The latter negatively affects the economies of developing countries, which lose external markets. McDonalds-style monopolization aggravates poverty, existing in developing countries by means of degrading its health potential and consequently its labor market. Opposing Perspective on Fast Food Those, who support fast food usually point to its cheapness, fast preparation and availability. The first argument was criticized in this paper based on poor quality of fast food and its parasitizing on poverty; the second point proceeds from the false assumption that fast preparation is something valuable. In contrast, present paper showed that it results in poor consequences for health and culture. Conclusion Present essay defended the stated thesis that fast food negatively affects human health, culture, ethics and economy. Health implications are evident in the wide number of studies, as well apparent syndrome of obesity in Western countries. Cultural and ethical implications relate to the degradation of the patterns of spiritual and cultural food consumption, based on family   and national traditions. Finally, economic consequences refer to the trend of standardization of fast food production, its link with poverty and social inequality. References Adams, Catherine. (2007) â€Å"Reframing the Obesity Debate: McDonald’s Role May Surprise You.† Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics Vol. 35: 154-157. Jakle, John (1999). Fast Food: Roadside Restaurants in the Automobile Age. Johns Hopkins University Press. Obesity In America. (2008). The Endocrine Society; The Hormone Foundation. Accessed on 25 May, 2009 at . Schlosser, Eric. (2002). Fast Food Nation. Penguin Books.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Etosha: Place of Dry Water Essay

Etosha is an ecosystem that contains many interacting species of organisms and their physical environment. As the seasons change, the temperature and climate affect the biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors are the living organisms that are affected by abiotic factors. Abiotic factors are the non-living or physical factor that directly affects the living organisms. Etosha displays all type of biotic and abiotic factors as the seasons change and the rainy seasons come again to start the cycle again. A biotic factor is the predator and prey relationship. Etosha displays this through many of its organisms- turtle and dove, cheetah and zebra, lion and frog, and snake and frog respectively. The parasite and host relationship constitutes as a biotic factory. An example of this is the squirrel, the host and the fleas, the parasite. There exists mutualism in Etosha. The mother fox finds bugs on its young ones and this provides food for the mothers. The bugs use the mother to live on and to live off of. Therefore, each organism benefits from their relationship. Competition exists between male bullfrogs over the female bullfrogs for mating. They may go to the extent of eating one another. The male lions also fight one another over the female lioness for mating. An example of a food chain in Etosha starts with bugs. Then, the bullfrogs eat the bugs. Bullfrogs eat other bullfrogs for competition and a lion eats the bullfrog. The squirrel has a long tail to shade it from the sun, which is an example of adaptation. Another adaptation is the large ears of the bat ear fox, which allow it to hear sounds of the bugs in the ground for food. The bullfrog camouflage in the swamp by cryptic coloration. It is the same color as its environment. These are the major biotic factors, which exist in Etosha. The abiotic factor that persists in Etosha is the soil, which turns dry from the heat and sun. It turns to a desert and many animals move away until the next large rainfall, which creates lakes for the animal activity in a year. The precipitation in Etosha is an important factor because it provides water for the animals and the plants. It is also a home for small organisms such as the bullfrog. The heat causes the lakes to dry and the movement of animals until the next rainy season. This heat even kills some animals such  as the pelicans. The animals start to the water holes before morning because of the extreme heat. The animals get light from the sun as their main source. On a whole, many animals go to sleep when the sun goes down and will start again in the morning for their quest for food and survival. A chemical cycle that occurred in Etosha was the Nitrogen Cycle. Nitrogen fixation occurs when the thunderstorms pass through Etosha. In the soil, bacteria convert ammonia to nitrate through nitrification. Assimilation occurs when plant proteins convert to animal protein with the herbivores like the giraffe. The pelican goes through ammonification when it dies; the bacteria decompose into ammonia again. Lastly, denitrification occurs when nitrate converts to nitrogen, which is released into the environment. These are the major abiotic and biotic factors within the Etosha environment.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Babe Ruth 3 Essay Research Paper Babe

Babe Ruth 3 Essay, Research Paper Babe Ruth On February 6, 1895, Kate Schamberger Ruth gave birth to her first kid. George Herman Ruth, Jr. was born in Baltimore, Maryland. He was the first of eight kids born to Kate and George Herman Ruth. Ruth # 8217 ; s father worked as a barman and finally opened his ain tap house. Many believe that George was an orphan all his life, but for the first seven old ages of his life he was with his parents, but he survived without counsel on the dirty, crowded streets of the Baltimore riverfront. On June 13, 1902, George Herman Ruth took his seven year-old to St. Mary # 8217 ; s Industrial School for Boys. Not merely did he topographic point immature George in the school, but he besides signed over detention of the male child to the Xaverian Brothers, a Catholic Order of Jesuit Missionaries who ran St. Mary # 8217 ; s. At St. Mary s he met Brother Mathias, he taught George about life and Base baseball Baseball was a popular signifier of diversion for the male childs at St. Mary # 8217 ; s. Young George Ruth, Jr. , displayed his potency at a really immature age. He played all places on the field, and was an first-class hurler. He besides possessed a brilliant ability to hit the ball. By his late teens Ruth had developed into a major conference baseball chance. On February 27, 1914, at the age of 19, Ruth was signed to his first professional baseball contract by Jack Dunn, director of the Baltimore Orioles, at the clip a minor conference franchise in the International League. Because Ruth # 8217 ; s parents had signed over detention of the child to St. Mary # 8217 ; s he was supposed to stay at the school until the age of 21. To acquire around this, Dunn became Ruth # 8217 ; s legal defender. When George Ruth, Jr. , appeared with Dunn at the ballpark the other participants started checking gags, and one of the participants quipped, # 8220 ; Well, here # 8217 ; s Jack # 8217 ; s newest Babe. # 8221 ; The remainder of the participants besides started mentioning to immature George as # 8220 ; Babe # 8221 ; and the name stuck. Therefore began the celebrated calling of Babe Ruth. In the forenoons, Ruth would travel into Landers # 8217 ; Coffee Shop in Boston, and it is here that he met Helen Woodford, a seventeen-year-old waitress. They married on October 17, 1914 in Ellicott City, Maryland. In December of 1919 Babe was sold to the New York Yankees. Prior to Ruth # 8217 ; s reaching in New York, the squad had neer won a crown. With # 8220 ; The Babe # 8221 ; as portion of their squad they became a dominant force in major conference baseball, winning seven crowns and four World Championships from 1920 to 1933. In 1921, the twosome adopted a babe miss, Dorothy. On January 11, 1929, at the age of 31, Helen died of asphyxiation in a fire. Dorothy, who was eight at the clip, was off at get oning school. Babe met and became earnestly interested in a immature widow, Claire Hodgson. Claire had come to New York from Georgia with her immature girl Julia in 1920 and worked as a theoretical account and actress. On April 17, 1929, the two were married in New York. In October 1930, Babe adopted Claire # 8217 ; s girl Julia, while Claire did the same with Dorothy. He had a passion for runing and fishing, pugilism, and bowling. But possibly one of his biggest athletic passions was golf. He loved the game and played whenever he could. Babe Ruth # 8217 ; s last twelvemonth as a Yankee was 1934. He wanted severely to pull off in the major conferences. In 1935, at the age of 40, he announced that his playing yearss were through and that he wanted to go a director. In late February, the Boston Braves, wanted Ruth to fall in the squad by doing him believe that the undermentioned twelvemonth he may go the squad # 8217 ; s director. Unfortunately for the Babe, that neer came to go through. Ruth played his last major conference game on May 30, 1935, for the Boston Braves and announced his retirement on June 2, 1935. From that twenty-four hours on he kept trusting to acquire a opportunity to pull off in the major conferences, but the chance neer came. In 1946, Babe was diagnosed with pharynx malignant neoplastic disease. Even though physicians performed surgery and he received radiation interventions, the malignant neoplastic disease couldn T be cured. With physicians being unable to make any more for him, Babe was released from the infirmary. Subsequently, April 27 was declared # 8220 ; Babe Ruth Day # 8221 ; in every baseball park in the United States and Japan. Although excessively frail to wear his old uniform at the clip, Babe did do an visual aspect on that twenty-four hours at Yankee Stadium. His concluding visual aspect at Yankee bowl really came subsequently, on June 13, 1948, during the twenty-fifth day of remembrance of # 8220 ; The House that Ruth Built. # 8221 ; During the jubilation the Northerners besides retired his uniform, figure 3, and for that ground Babe put on the uniform for one last clip. At 8:01 p.m. on August 16, 1948, Babe Ruth lost his conflict with malignant neoplastic disease. For two yearss, his organic structure lay in province at the chief entryway to Yankee Stadium. Hundreds of 1000s of people stood in line to pay their last respects. Babe # 8217 ; s funeral was on August 19 at St. Patrick # 8217 ; s Cathedral in New York. He is buried at Gate of Heaven Cemetery in Hawthorne, New York. He now rests along side of his married woman Claire who was buried following to him after her decease in 1976.

Systems Requirements Engineering Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Systems Requirements Engineering - Essay Example It is the phase that encompasses those tasks that go into determining the needs to meet the goals, taking account of the possible conflicts and specifying the overall risks. A sub-phase of the requirements specifications which deems high importance is Software Requirements Specification (SRS). SRS is a description of a behavioral aspects of the system which includes all the interactions that the users will have with the product (Stellman & Greene, 2005). Modeling is a central part of all activities that lead up to the deployment of a good software (Booch et al, 2005). Modeling is exactly the role that Unified Modeling Language plays in requirements specifications. The role of Unified Modeling Language is to model interactive systems, whose behaviors emerge from the interaction of their components with each other and with the environment (Goldin et al., 2001). In traditional computation, algorithmic models were sufficient for description of requirements. However, todays interactive systems which are capable of self reconfiguring and adapting to their environment, algorithm tools do not suffice. Unlike traditional procedural languages, UML provides support for the inherently open-ended preliminary steps of systems analysis and specification, which are becoming increasingly complex (Wegner, 1997). UML is used to visualize, specify, construct and document the artifacts of the software-intensive system. A software of any nature or propor tion will have multiple methods, functions, interface and external and internal accesses. To support such a broad mix of entities, UML provides different views to analyze this software. Analysis of each of this views gives the software designer a set of requirements which can be consequently forward engineered. The prominent views provided by UML are Use Case View, Component View, Deployment View, Concurrency View and Logical View (Eriksson & Penker, 1998). Use Case View: Requirements capture has two objectives: to find the true requirements and to represent them n a suitable way for the users, customers and developers (Jacobson et al., 1999). True requirements are the end user functionalities desired by the user of the system. These functionalities must be presented in a way such that users spend minimum amount of time understanding it. Use Cases can be applied to capture the intended behavior of the system being developed, without having to specify how that behavior is implemented (Booch et al., 2005). UML provides Use Case diagrams to model the Use Case View. Logical View: The purpose of logical view is to specify the functional requirements of the system. This means that the logical view shows both the static and dynamic views of the system. The logical view concentrates on getting the best logical grouping of functionality into objects (fincher, 2007). The main artifact of logical view is the design model which gives a concrete description of the functional behavior of the system. UML provides Class diagrams and Object diagrams to model

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Oil Business - Advantages and Disadvantages Essay

Oil Business - Advantages and Disadvantages - Essay Example Typically, the entire oil business is divided into three main parts which are the upstream, midstream, and downstream sector. The upstream sector is concerned with the location and extraction of oil from various parts of the world while the midstream is concerned with the processing of extracted oil to marketable products as well as the transportation of such products. Both the upstream and the midstream sectors are concentrated only in certain parts of the world such as Russia or the Middle East while the distribution industry which is part of the downstream sector is spread throughout the world (Gary & Handwerk, 1994). Therefore, any changes in the global market of oil can either favorable or adversely affect the distribution industry significantly. The unpredictability of the global market can also lead to many changes inside of the distribution industry, and the rising cost of fuel has only put a strain on the already straining oil distribution industry.One of the industryâ€℠¢s strengths is that it is among the first in the line of industries affected by oil prices and therefore it can suffer minimally as compared to other industries when it comes to changes in oil prices. Because it is the first hit by the changes, it is also the first that can adapt and the first to be able to quickly overcome the changes to try to lessen losses based on the change in oil prices. Where other industries are affected conversely through the chain of order and sometimes have little room to do anything about the price of oil, the gas distribution is hit first and therefore can adapt most quickly with the other industries adapting around it.When less oil is mined and processed in the international market, independent distributors would have to compete to obtain what is available. This sort of competition can drive smaller distributors out of business. And for those smaller distributors, this can cause problems, and may at first look like an outright negative effect of gas p rices, and a negative effect of the whole of the industry. But this negative opportunity for the smaller firms soon opens up a larger one for the bigger firms, which can then flex their economic muscle a little bit. It is this versatility and adaptability that helps the oil distribution industry to survive at hard times when most other industries would fold upon themselves and crumble.